and Jeff Bonwick
of Sun Microsystems co-authored an excellent position piece on concurrency
in the ACM Queue. It's about time someone stood up to those short-selling concurrency bears. Take heart, young coders! Correct concurrent software does appear out there from time to time, no matter what your grad TA tells you!
The section on hard-won lessons from developing concurrent software warmed my heart; VMware's virtual machine monitor team has learned the same lessons, and I for one can endorse their list wholeheartedly.
With any legit publication like this, the authors struggle to balance completeness and concision, and some things did not make the cut. So, don't take it as criticism that I would add just one item to their list, that has powerfully increased our ability to ship concurrent code (drumroll): lock ranks
. Huh? Lock ranks! We have imposed an explicit, compiled-in partial order on the locks in our system. Acquiring locks out of order causes a runtime failure in debug builds. I've seen some engineers regard this discipline as a sort of "training wheels" for concurrency, but it has benefits even for seasoned vets.
- Ranks force developers to think about layering before writing synchronization code. Will this subsystem be touching guest memory? Will it require synchronous remote execution on other CPUs? Will the user-level portion of our software ever need to acquire this lock? Etc.
- This has strangled many a rare deadlock in the crib. I agree with Bryan and Jeff that, in practice, a deadlock is not too hard to debug post-mortem; however, post-mortem is too late if the core comes from a customer site. A rank violation is much, much easier to catch in testing than a deadlock, since it only depends on the single-threaded path leading an order violation, as opposed to a concurrent race. This performs the magic trick of reducing a concurrent QA problem (exercise every lock interleaving) to a serial QA problem (cover every path that acquires a lock).
- The same discipline can be applied to other synchronous services in the system. For instance, like many other concurrent systems, our VMM has a "crosscall" primitive, which lets a caller synchronously run code in a remote VCPU. This can lead to lock-like dependency cycles, where, e.g., VCPU 0 holds lock A and crosscalls VCPU 1 which is blocked waiting for A. To prevent this, we encorce the rank metaphor for crosscalls, too; a crosscall while holding dangerous locks fails just as a misorder lock acquisition would.
While the rank discipline was initially adopted for deadlock avoidance, the structure it imposes on the system is even more valuable. The lock ranks, in isolation, provide a succinct description of the system's organization. If you take the partial order of the lock ranks, associate them with their controlling subsystems, you can construct a "wedding cake" chart of the system automatically. I.e., if subsystem A relies on subsystem B, then locks protecting A's data will always have lower rank than B's. The top of the cake are "pure" clients, which are never entered from other subsystems; the tippy-top layer of frosting are the handful of points that we enter the VMM from the guest, where we always know that no VMM locks are held. The bottom of the cake, corresponding to the highest ranked, "leaf" locks, from which no other code is reachable, correspond to the most basic, omnipresent life-support facilities: logging, deferring work to a less pressing time, panic'ing, etc.
Bryan advertised the article in an excellent (though more in-character) blog post
. Out here in the wild wild web, Bryan lets the invective against transactional memory advocates ("shysters", in his estimation) flow a bit more freely. I am not sure the hype surrounding TM is malicious; I suspect it is your garden-variety, low-grade academic over-enthusiasm, born partly from needing to exaggerate in grant proposals and paper abstracts, and partly from honest optimism. Think "microkernels," not "laetril
Hey, remember microkernels? For about a decade, systems journals were dominated by papers that took for granted
that microkernels would dominate general purpose OS'es. This religious belief that running parts of the operating system in separate address spaces would make everything easier and better begat all sorts of meaty sub-problems, like doing fast synchronous cross-address-space RPC, and building little IDL compilers that provide binary compatibility for clients when driver binaries change and ... so on. I suspect TM will take a similar course, dying not with a bang, but a whimper, and ten years hence.
It's interesting to me that, as with microkernels, one of the principle reasons TM will fail is the messy, messy reality of peripheral devices. One of the claims made by microkernel proponents is that, since microkernel drivers are "just user-level processes", they'll survive driver failures. And this is almost true, for some definition of "survive." Suppose you're a microkernel, and you restart a failed user-level driver; the new driver instance has no way of knowing what state the borked-out driver left the actual, physical hardware in. Sometimes, a blind reset procedure can safely be carried out, but sometimes it can't. Also, the devices being driven are DMA masters, so they might very well have done something horrible to the kernel even though the buggy driver was "just a user-level app." And if there were I/Os in flight at failure time, have they happened, or not? Remember, they might not be idempotent... I'm not saying that some best-effort way of dealing with many of these problems is impossible, just that it's unclear that moving the driver into userspace has helped the situation at all.
Similarly, peripherals are a gotcha for TM, because, as Bryan and Jeff point out, they're not memory
. There will never be a way to make TM transactions persist across system calls, unless you find a way to un
transmit network packets. That means that TM is now and always will be
* useful only for raw computation: AVL trees, mp3 encoding, sort, and whatnot. Those are important facilities, but they're also the sort of thing that are coded once, by an expert, and used forever thence from a library, so "ease of programming" is not the highest priority. Even if "ease of programming mp3 encoders" is your metric, it's unclear that TM is an across-the-board win. What happens when you set a debug watchpoint on memory that's accessed transactionally? Oh, sorry! Didn't mean to spoil the punchline from someone's PhD thesis...
Not so simple anymore, eh?. If you can remember way back to your undergrad days, locks probably seemed easy at first, too.
* I'm exhausted with that weasel phrase "current TM implementations"; transactions will never, bloody ever
span I/Os, and that's the relevant limitation.